Written by: Nikita Patel, MD (NUEM PGY-2) Edited by: Paul Trinquero, MD (NUEM ‘19) Expert commentary by: Kristen Loftus, MD, MEd
This is a succinct, high-yield review of pediatric ankle injury management. I appreciate the focus on radiograph-negative injuries, as only a minority will have a fracture identified on radiographs (~12%).
You highlight a key point about the use of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR). A few things I would emphasize/add:
You most definitely do not need an x-ray on every pediatric patient with an ankle injury (though x-rays are obtained ~85-95% of the time).
The OAR have indeed been well-validated in children. In clinical practice, the problem you run into with the pediatric population is that: 1) kids commonly refuse to bear weight even with mild ankle injuries and 2) in pediatric patients (as opposed to adults), isolated distal fibular tenderness typically suggests a low risk ankle injury where x-rays won’t change your management.
The Low Risk Ankle Rule (LRAR) addresses these 2 key issues of using the OAR in kids, and it may be worth considering adopting the use of this clinical decision rule for pediatric ankle injuries. It was initially validated in children and is associated with a larger decrease in unnecessary radiographs compared to the OAR. [Boutis K, Komar L, Jaramillo D, et al. Sensitivity of a clinical examination to predict need for radiography in children with ankle injuries: a prospective study. Lancet. 2001;358:2118-21.]
No discussion on pediatric orthopedic injuries would be complete without a review of the Salter-Harris classification. There is a lot of practice pattern variation in the management of patients with negative radiographs but growth plate tenderness on exam (i.e. the potential Salter-Harris I fracture). The Boutis et al. group has done some great work in this area, and you highlight several key studies in your excellent review of the literature. I personally feel well-supported by this emerging evidence, and my practice pattern is to place patients in a removable ankle lacer (if able to bear weight) or a pneumatic walking boot (if unable to bear weight), with crutches as needed, and outpatient follow-up with their pediatrician versus Sports Medicine, rather than Orthopedics.
Kirsten V. Loftus, MD MEd
Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago
How to Cite This Post
[Peer-Reviewed, Web Publication] Patel N, Trinquero P. (2019, Oct 21). Pediatric Ankle Injuries. [NUEM Blog. Expert Commentary by Loftus K]. Retrieved from http://www.nuemblog.com/blog/peds-ankle.