Posts tagged #intubation

Post-Intubation Checklist

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Written by: Andra Farcas, MD (NUEM PGY-2) Edited by: Paul Trinquero, MD (NUEM PGY-4) Expert commentary by: Andrew Pirotte, MD


Developing a Post-Intubation Checklist

Multiple studies have shown checklists in medicine can be beneficial. They have been used to reduce rates of catheter-related blood stream infections and ventilator associated pneumonias and to improve team performance in various settings.  

In the ED setting, a peri-intubation checklist for trauma patients resulted in more use of rapid sequence intubation and a trend towards improvement in post-intubation sedation rates.[1] This checklist included meds for pre-intubation (pre-treatment, induction, paralytics) and information about which intubation device was used but had only one line for post-intubation medications and did not include other post-intubation safety measures.  

One of the few studies that we could find specifically focused on a post-intubation checklist was a MICU study by McConnell, et al. They looked at the proportion of patients who had an ABG drawn within 60 minutes of mechanical ventilation initiation, as well as rates of respiratory acidosis and acidemia. They found that after initiating a post-intubation checklist and timeout, the rates of ABGs increased, which led to earlier recognition of inappropriate ventilation settings.  

There are a lot of pre-intubation checklists available for public use. For example, a great podcast/blogpost by Scott Weingart on the topic was developed into a checklist by Jeffrey Siegler and Christ Huntley. Their versions can be found at https://emcrit.org/emcrit/post-intubation-package/.

Our goal was to design a checklist specifically for the post-intubation setting that could potentially be implemented in our emergency department. We took ideas from aforementioned studies and existing checklists, as well as personal experience. In addition to covering a broad array of post-intubation tasks, we wanted to focus especially on post-intubation sedation and initial vent settings. In regards to these important tasks, what we do in the ED matters. Not only are the first few hours a critical period in the course of illness, but there is significant downstream momentum associated with choices made in the Emergency Department.  

The SPICE trial showed a link between deep early sedation and prolonged ventilation and increased mortality.[6] Conversely, an analgesia only, no-sedation approach has been shown to reduce time on the ventilator.[7] Consequently, we advocate for an analgesia-first approach. Fentanyl is a commonly used opioid for this purpose because of its rapid onset and short half-life. An easy starting point is a 0.5 - 1mcg/kg fentanyl push, followed by a drip starting at 25mcg/hr and uptitrated by 25mcg every 15-30 minutes (concurrent with another bolus as needed to control pain).

If pain is under control and additional sedation is needed, there are many options. Propofol is commonly used and is easily titratable. Start with a bolus of 5 mcg/kg/min (for 5 min) and start the drip at 5 to 10 mcg/kg/min, increasing by 5-10mcg/kg/min intervals every 5 min as needed (usual range 5-50mcg/kg/min). In the case of hypotension precluding the use of propofol, consider ketamine. Try to avoid benzodiazepines as these have been shown to increase risk of delirium.

Similarly, the initial vent settings that we chose in the ED matter and they can affect duration of ventilation, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, and other patient-oriented outcomes.[2] Not all illnesses requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation are the same and consequently vent-settings are not a one size fits all selection. Try to tailor settings to the individual patient and illness and choose one of the following broad strategies[9]:

  1. Lung Protective Strategy (ARDS, lung injury, default for most patients): goal is to minimize additional injury via volutrauma or barotrauma. Set the tidal volume at 6-8cc per kg (of ideal body weight). Soon after intubation, drop Fio2 to 30% and PEEP to 5cm then titrate according to ARDSNet strategy for goal oxygen saturation 88-95%.

  2. Obstructive Strategy (asthma or COPD): goal is to minimize air trapping by maximizing expiration time. Hence, set a low rate (perhaps 10) which will minimize I:E ratio (perhaps 1:4). Tidal volume can be standard 8cc/kg. This strategy may require permissive hypercapnea.

  3. Severe acidosis (DKA, severe sepsis, etc.): Goal is to mimic the pre-intubation minute ventilation. Set the respiratory rate to match pre-intubation rate (usually at least 25-30).

Below is our designed post-intubation checklist:

Farcas_Checklist_v2.png

Expert Commentary

This column highlights the need for optimized post-intubation management.  This process requires attention to detail and patient needs.  Effective management not only involves delivery of adequate analgesia and sedation, but also efficient titration of the ventilator.  Each of these aspects of post-intubation management can be multi-faceted and challenging.  To assist with these processes and to simplify tasks, a checklist can be of great value.

Checklists can help create a stepwise clinical approach and trigger timely delivery of individual tasks.  Checklists can also help prevent omission of vital steps.  A task as simple as a chest X-ray to confirm endotracheal tube placement and positioning can be overlooked in an emergent situation.  The checklist provided in the review provides a simple, direct pathway to assist with post-intubation management, and avoid task omission.  In addition, this checklist can help emphasize strategies in the post-intubation period.  For example, the use of an “analgesic first” pathway for patient comfort following intubation.

As stated in the blog post, evidence now suggests “analgesic first” pathways improve patient outcomes.  The clinician should strive to enhance analgesia prior to escalating sedation.  Sedation has its role in post-intubation management, but should be employed only if escalated analgesic efforts fail.  “Analgesic first” pathways decrease ICU length of stay, decrease complications, and improve outcomes.  In addition to managing patient comfort, the clinician must also focus on optimizing ventilation and oxygenation.

Successful ventilator management requires attention to detail and the clinical scenario.  Every patient has different ventilation and oxygenation needs.  In addition to frequently reevaluating the patient clinically, a common and effective strategy for optimizing a ventilated patient is use of frequent blood gas measurement.  Titration of ventilation and oxygenation can be aided greatly with serial blood gas monitoring.  The use of blood gas data can also guide the provider utilizing a specific ventilation strategy (eg Lung-protective strategy).  Common problems in early post-intubation management include excessive oxygen delivery and hypoventilation.  Both of these can be identified by blood gas sampling.  Once optimal ventilation and oxygenation is achieved, the clinician can proceed with further diagnostic and stabilization pathways.

 Within the airway community, much focus is placed on optimized laryngoscopy and endotracheal tube delivery, no desaturation during intubation, interesting new equipment, etc.  However, managing an airway does not conclude with delivery of the endotracheal tube.  All clinicians managing airways would benefit greatly from accompanying this enthusiasm for intubation with focused and detailed care (often supplemented by checklists) in the post-intubation period. 

Special thanks to Dr. Jordan Kaylor and Dr. Matthew Pirotte

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Andrew Pirotte, MD

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital

Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Kansas Medical Center


How To Cite This Post

[Peer-Reviewed, Web Publication] Farcas A, Trinquero P (2019, February 11). Post-Intubation Checklist [NUEM Blog. Expert Commentary by Pirotte A]. Retrieved from http://www.nuemblog.com/blog/post-intubation


Other Posts You Might Enjoy


References

  1. Conroy, M.J., Weingart, G.S., Carlson, J.N. Impact of checklists on peri-intubation care in ED trauma patients. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2014; 32:541-544.

  2. Fuller, B.M., Ferguson, I.T., Mohr, N.M., Drewery, A.M., Palmer, C., Wessman, B.T. et al. Lung-Protective Ventilation Initiated in the Emergency Department (LOV-ED): A Quasi-Experimental, Before-After Trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2017; 70(3):406-418.  

  3. Guthrie, K., Rippey, J. Emergency Department Post-Intubation Checklist. Agency for Clinical Innovation, 2013. https://www.aci.health.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/273792/emergency-department-post-intubation-checklist-charles-gairdner.pdf. Accessed May 26, 2018.

  4. McConnell, R.A., Kerlin, M.P., Schweickert, W.D., Ahmad, F., Patel, M.S., Fuchs, B.D. Using a Post-Intubation Checklist and Time Out to Expedite Mechanical Ventilation Monitoring: Observational study of a Quality Improvement Intervention. Respiratory Care, 2016; 61(7):902-912.

  5. Nickson, C. Post-intubation care. Life In The Fast Lane, Jan 5 2013. https://lifeinthefastlane.com/ccc/post-intubation-care/. Accessed May 26, 2018.

  6. Shehabi, Y., Bellomo, R., Reade, M., Bailey, M., Bass, F., Howe, B. et al. Early Intensive Care Sedation Predicts Long-Term Mortality in Ventilated Critically Ill Patients. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2012; 186(8):724-731.

  7. Strøm, T., Martinussen, T., Toft, P. A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial. The Lancet, 2010; 375:475-480

  8. Weingart, S. Podcast 84 – The Post-Intubation Package. EMCrit RACC, Oct 16 2012. https://emcrit.org/emcrit/post-intubation-package/. Accessed May 26, 2018.

  9. Weingart, S. Managing Initial Mechanical Ventilation in the Emergency Department. Annals Of Emergency Medicine, 2016; 68(5):614-61

Posted on February 11, 2019 and filed under Pulmonary.

Intubation Positioning: Beyond Sniffing

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Written by: Katie Colton, MD (NUEM PGY-4) Edited by: Charles Caffrey, MD (NUEM Alum ‘18) Expert commentary by: Andrew Pirotte, MD


The patient

On a recent Thursday night in a single-attending ED, we received a call that a patient was several minutes out with respiratory distress.  He had been enjoying his routine post-dinner cocaine insufflation and became dyspneic, per bystanders. We could hear yelling in the back of the ambulance and EMS reported that they were only able to get an oxygen saturation, which was about 70%. 

 

The scene

Two minutes later, EMS rushed in with a patient who looked to be in his mid-50s who was clearly struggling to breathe; it required 6 people to transfer him to our cart.  He was altered, hypoxic, approximately 500 pounds, and needing an airway in the near future.  While there are many considerations for the difficult airway, what are particular positioning options that may increase the chances of success in this patient?


“Positioning is 90% of the battle”

Beyond the technical difficulties posed by the morbidly obese patient, there are physiologic differences that complicate their oxygenation and ventilation.  Due to the weight of the chest and larger abdomen they will have a decreased functional residual capacity and total lung capacity.  Supine position can complicate pre-oxygenation, endotracheal intubation (ETI), and cause hypotension in these patients.  

Many providers are still trained almost entirely in ETI with a supine patient, but there is growing evidence that a head-up position can improve pre-oxygenation and facilitate ETI.

Some authors advocate for an aggressive ramped position, using either a pre-formed foam ramp or a stack of pillows or blankets, like in the pictures below.  I would argue that unless you have a stack of pillows at the ready and a number of spare hands this technique may be difficult in the less-controlled setting.

(Simoni 2005)

(Simoni 2005)

sniff2.png

So then what?

Newer studies – and anecdotal experience - are showing good results with upright intubation through simple manipulation of the head of the bed.  One example of this is the back-up head-elevated position as seen below[2]. First, by brief placement of the patient into Trendelenburg, the patient is brought all the way to the top of the bed (1 in image), and then the back of the bed is ramped up to at least 30 degrees above the horizontal (2 in image), with the head placed into the “sniffing” position with a towel roll (3 in image).[2] In their retrospective analysis, Khandelwal et al. found a lower rate of intubation-related complications as compared to a supine cohort, 9.3% vs 22.6%.[2]

(Khandewal 2016)  How to place the patient in the advised back-up, head-elevated position.

(Khandewal 2016)

How to place the patient in the advised back-up, head-elevated position.

A team from IU showed improved intubation success with head of bed elevation in both a simulated [4] and ED setting [3].  This approach allows the patient to be positioned during preoxygenation.  Redundant tissue falls away from the face and chest, improving the patients ability to breathe for themselves and the ease of BVM, if needed.  Khandelwal et al found lower risk of aspiration and esophageal tube placement. For every 5 degree increase in head of bed angulation above the horizontal, Turner et al found increased likelihood of first pass success with ETI.

(Turner 2017)

(Turner 2017)

In short, consider using the bed to your advantage in these difficult patients.  It takes time to overcome habits but there is good evidence for changing up your positioning plan.

 

Case Conclusion

The patient’s head of the bed was ramped up to 45 degrees. Utilizing rapid sequence intubation, the resident took one look with a size 4 Macintosh acquiring a Grade II view, and was able to place an 8-0 tube. A follow-up chest x-ray showed appropriate placement and frank pulmonary edema.  The patient was treated for pulmonary edema and admitted to the ICU.


Expert Commentary

As with all clinical excellence, the devil is in the details.  Skillful airway management requires attention to detail, notably patient positioning.  This case and review serve as a reminder that close attention to setup and positioning can help enhance successful airway management.

Positioning is critical to airway success.  Particularly in the setting of higher body-mass index patients, optimized positioning is a critical step to safe and successful airway management.  As suggested by the review, simply placing the patient in supine positioning is not optimal and should be avoided if possible.  Improved positioning can be achieved in several ways, but often the most straight-forward is by raising the head of the bed, or stacking towels and pillows.  This position is often referred to as the “sniffing” position. 

The sniffing position refers to bringing the sternal notch and the ear into the same plain (see blog post image).  This positioning not only improves ergonomics for the clinician, but provides enhanced laryngoscopy and endotracheal tube delivery success.  In addition, sniffing positioning compliments and enhances other airway optimization strategies. 

One significant benefit of the sniffing position is preventing collapse of soft tissue and occlusion of the airway.  The relief of redundant tissue with the sniffing position likely improves high-quality mask ventilation, as the tissue collapse into the posterior oropharynx is less prominent.  Physiological benefits of sniffing position also include decreased lung atelectasis and improved delivery of oxygen during airway preparation. Considering these points, utilization of the sniffing position (rather than supine positioning), vitally strengthens the airway management pathway.

Positioning remains crucial to optimized airway delivery. The sniffing position does not require expensive equipment or great skill; it is a straight-forward, useful, and impactful strategy to enhance airway management.  As emergency airway management continues to evolve, much focus has been on enhancing laryngoscopy.  In addition, there have been great strides in technology and monitoring equipment.  But even with the best equipment and technology, simple strategies such as optimizing positioning can lead to high-yield results. 

Special thanks to Dr. Jordan Kaylor and Dr. Matthew Pirotte

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Andrew Pirotte, MD

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital

Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Kansas Medical Center


How to Cite This Post

[Peer-Reviewed, Web Publication] Colton K, Caffrey C (2019, February 4). Intubation Positioning: Beyond Sniffing [NUEM Blog. Expert Commentary by Pirotte A]. Retrieved from http://www.nuemblog.com/blog/intubation-positioning.


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Resources 

  1. RF Simoni et al. Tracheal Intubation of Morbidly Obese Patients: A Useful Device. Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology, 2005; 55: 2: 256-260

  2. N Khandelwal et al. Head-Elevated Patient Positioning Decreases Complications of Emergent Tracheal Intubation in the Ward and Intensive Care Unit. Anesth Analg. 2016 Apr;122(4):1101-7.

  3. Turner JS et al.  Feasibility of upright patient positioning and intubation success rates at two academic emergency departments. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Feb 5. pii: S0735-6757(17)30100-6.

  4. Turner JS et al. Cross-over study of novice intubators performing endotracheal intubation in an upright versus supine position. Intern Emerg Med. 2016 Jun 14.

 

 

 

 

Posted on February 4, 2019 and filed under Airway.